Human Nutrition - 2020 Edition
Marie Kainoa Fialkowski Revilla, University of Hawai‘i, Mānoa
Alan Titchenal, University of Hawai‘i, Mānoa
Jennifer Draper, University of Hawai‘i, Mānoa
Copyright Year: 2018
Last Update: 2020
ISBN 13: 9781948027014
Publisher: University of Hawaii Manoa
Conditions of Use
This textbook on nutrition covers important basic nutrition topics: the nutrients that are essential for humans (macro and micro nutrients), anatomy, function, and purpose of body systems (digestive, cardiovascular, neurological, etc.),... read more
This textbook on nutrition covers important basic nutrition topics: the nutrients that are essential for humans (macro and micro nutrients), anatomy, function, and purpose of body systems (digestive, cardiovascular, neurological, etc.), composition of foods, USDA dietary guidelines, dietary needs throughout one’s lifespan and situation (pregnancy, sports performance).
The table of contents is informative. There is no glossary or topic index.
This textbook does not ask why do humans require food? The purpose of eating is to supply the body with the materials it needs to (a) create and maintain itself and (b) secure the energy to power its body systems.
We eat food to obtain the essential macro (water, proteins, fats, carbohydrates) and micro (vitamins and minerals) nutrients. In truth, we are chemical creatures. Our nutrition requirements could be adequately supplied from the chemistry and food science labs. Preparing and eating foods from Nature’s bounty are much more tasty and satisfying.
In Chapter 2 other important, diet-related topics: the prevalence of diet-related chronic diseases, obesity, and life-threatening eating disorders, food insecurity are minimal. The health risks associated with the billion-dollar, unregulated dietary supplement industry are dismissed with a ‘buy beware’ caveat.
The content is accurate in what is covered, but simplistic in the information that is conveyed. I teach at a community college. This is a college textbook written for adults who can easily handle a more complex, sophisticated presentation. Nutrition is a science course. Except for a short section of the scientific method and research Chapter 2 this text presents this nutrition course as “facts.”
In this textbook provides detailed, comprehensive information on the anatomy and function of the body systems.
How these systems are connected and managed through metabolic and hormonal processes are not discussed. Examples: (a) regulation by the liver of blood glucose levels through the hormone glucagon and the action of insulin; (b) the ghrelin, hunger hormone and leptin (satisfaction hormone) relationship.
The significance of the liver (so important that it is the only organ that can regenerate if physically injured) and our kidneys in our health is not emphasized. Thus how to protect these vital organs is not discussed. Students do not learn: why low sodium diets are strongly recommended or how liver function can be permanently damaged by dietary supplements.
We live at time where the general public is distrustful of science ‘facts.’
An opportunity to show how science/nutrition ‘facts’ are determined was missed. Data in the form of charts, tables, and graphs could be included. Much more information on NHANES multi-year efforts to monitor the health of US population could be added. The general public is unaware of the work done by unsung ‘heroes’ in local, state, and national government science and health agencies that result in publications like “Health, United States” https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/hus/report.htm and “USDA Nutritional Guidelines” https://health.gov/our-work/nutrition-physical-activity/dietary-guidelines .
Unbiased? It appears unbiased, but the overall presentation of information could be smoothing over details which promote the unconscious acceptance of historic racial bias.
For example, in Chapter2: The Digestive System mentions “lactose intolerance” as if this was a health problem or illness. Most people on Earth (~60%) carry ‘wild type’ lactose genes which shut off in childhood as lactose sugar is only found in milk. Folks with the mutation to handle lactose forever are actually the minority. But in US those people number in the majority and easily handle lactose.
This textbook provides detailed information on the nutritional requirements, food types, body systems. This type of information about human needs is fundamental. It will be easy to update this textbook.
This textbook is to be commended for its clarity and use of images.
This textbook is to be commended for its consistency.
The table of contents provides clear information for each chapter and each of the subchapters. So, it would be easy to reorder the chapter topics.
However, a topic index for this textbook would be very, very helpful.
The table of contents provides clear information for each chapter and its subchapters.
No problems here.
The text appears free of spelling and grammatical errors.
Same comment as under 'Accuracy.' Unbiased? It appears unbiased, but the overall presentation of information could be smoothing over details which promote the unconscious acceptance of historic racial bias. For example, in Chapter2: The Digestive System mentions “lactose intolerance” as if this was a health problem or illness. Most people on Earth (~60%) carry ‘wild type’ lactose gene which shuts off in childhood as lactose sugar is only found in milk. Folks with the mutation to handle lactose forever are actually the minority. But in US and Europe those people number in the majority and easily handle lactose.
The textbook is the result of collaboration with students.
This was a difficult, but successful undertaking. The textbook is to be lauded as an example of ‘open pedagogy.’
Chapters 2 and 17 could be expanded.
Chapter 2 the subchapters could be full chapters. Important topics: the prevalence of diet-related chronic diseases, obesity, and life-threatening eating disorders, food insecurity, dietary supplements are minimal.
There is a global obesity crisis. Students should learn that big, quick weight losses can be very dangerous. (Ask the contestants of the Biggest Losers TV reality show ( https://www.health.harvard.edu/diet-and-weight-loss/lessons-from-the-biggest-loser ). There are several safe ways to achieve healthy, permanent (large) weight loss ( https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/weight-management ).
The connection of ultra-processed foods with obesity was demonstrated by the 2019 NIH study which showed that eating minimally processed foods led to weight loss—even though participants could eat as much food as they desired (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7959109/ ).
Chapter 17 could raise student awareness of the challenges inherent in the sources and composition of the US food supply. Northwestern University study found that 71% of food purchased (and assumed consumed) in the US during 2018 ( https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/11/8/1704 ).
The reality that Americans are AND have been eating GMO foods for many years is glossed over. [Personally, I approve of GMOs –especially those that are biofortified with important nutrients.] Students deserve to have a solid understanding of the GMO controversy to make informed decisions on GMO foods.
The dietary supplement industry is unregulated in the US. Consumers have become serious ill and some have died. https://www.npr.org/2015/02/03/383578263/new-york-attorney-general-targets-mislabeled-herbal-supplements Also https://www.jahonline.org/article/S1054-139X(19)30163-6/fulltext
There is now a special label (USP) adopted by some dietary supplement manufacturers to assure that the contents and amounts in the bottle are exactly as advertised (https://www.usp.org/verification-services/verified-mark ).
Include more on Food fraud --there are 6 or 7 types. FDA has a special webpage https://www.fda.gov/food/compliance-enforcement-food/economically-motivated-adulteration-food-fraud )
Food safety could be expanded. For example: Consumers can sign up to be notified of problems in US food supply (example product recalls)
Students could be learning how to find the nutritious foods they desire AND protect themselves from harm.
There is so much nutrition and wellness misinformation (and fraud too) on the Internet and social media.
My students have found the NLM's MedlinePlus "Evaluating Internet Health Information Tutorial" eye-opening and very helpful.
This is a 16-minute presentation on how to evaluate health information on the internet.
I feel that there could have been more pages dedicated to types of eating disorders and also pressures from outside influences on choices we make when making choices to gain/lose/maintain weight. read more
I feel that there could have been more pages dedicated to types of eating disorders and also pressures from outside influences on choices we make when making choices to gain/lose/maintain weight.
I feel overall this book accurately covers information in other nutrition texts that I have used in the past
The Macro nutrient chapters where very well covered including how the body uses each macronutrient for fuel
I feel that the book was written well. Each chapter was broken down into subsections well and it was easy to navigate.
The information was accurate and reliable
This text as a whole is a good stand alone textbook. Each chapter can also be used in free standing to teach a specific module within a nutrition course.
The text was designed well in moving from chapter to chapter.
Some student did have trouble using the in text learning applications
Exploring the book I did not catch grammatical errors
The text also referenced Native Hawaiian dietary patterns. The authors could have explored other unique dietary patterns in other parts of the world.
Overall I found this text book to be equal to other texts that I have used in the past. The biggest benefit of this text is that it is free to our students.
This book covers the typical topics that are usually covered in a basic nutrition textbook. I think there are some areas where it goes into great detail or breadth, maybe even more than is needed. For example, I don’t think the discussion of all... read more
This book covers the typical topics that are usually covered in a basic nutrition textbook. I think there are some areas where it goes into great detail or breadth, maybe even more than is needed. For example, I don’t think the discussion of all the different body systems, other than the digestive system, is needed in a nutrition textbook of this level. There are also topics that do not get discussed, like microbiome, nutrigenomics, whole grains vs refined grains, health benefits of the two types of fiber, and fasting. However, I do appreciate that there are sections on different phases of life (pregnancy, child, adolescent). Although basic nutrition classes typically don't have time to go into those, I like that students can access those as a resource if they are interested in learning more.
The content in this text appears to be accurate, and I feel good about directing my students to this resource for information. The primary sources of what I would consider inaccuracies were sources of outdated information or missing information that doesn't give the full picture.
The foundational information in this text is relevant, but there are some pretty big and important topics that are not covered at all or details are left out that are important aspects of health that I would want my students to take away from a basic nutrition class. Some of the relevant concepts I would have liked to have included are the microbiome, nutrigenomics, whole grains vs refined grains, health benefits of the two types of fiber, fasting, nutrition related to environment and sustainability, more detailed discussion of plant-based diets, more detailed process for development of atherosclerotic plaque, differences in alcohol metabolism between males and females.
The text is written clearly. However, some images could be improved to increase clarity of concepts. I recognize that access to quality images and diagrams that are free of copyrights is a challenge, so this is a weakness I see throughout many OER textbooks.
The text is consistent in the language and framework it uses.
The text is broken up into manageable sized chunks of material. As an instructor, I feel like I could refer students to a specific subheading within a chapter and it would be relatively easy for them to find the information they needed.
As I have been using this textbook, there have been several times when I felt like I didn't know where to look for a specific piece of content and then when I tracked it down using the search tool, it didn't make sense to me where it was located. Some specific examples include the "Indicators of Health: BMI, etc." section, metabolic pathways, and nutrition and health and disease. Additionally, within some chapters, the way content was broken up between subheadings didn't always make sense to me (lipids section for example). At the level of the chapters, this is not the order I teach content in, but I think every instructor teaches things in a different sequence and would have a different preference for how to put things in order. So the way things are organized within chapters and where pieces of content are housed seems more important to me. I think students would have a hard time tracking down some information and connecting the basic foundations with application based on how the text is organized.
The interface is good and easy to navigate through using the contents tab and search tool.
The text is grammatically well written without errors.
The text is written by and for University of Hawaii students, with foods discussed and images provided being most relevant to a Hawaiian population. I find it encouraging that the authors chose to use an approach that was most relevant to their students and to explore some of the unique Hawaiian foods. But I do recognize that it isn't as relevant to my students or students in other areas.
This is a great resource for most basic nutrition classes, with a depth and breadth of information that provides students with most of the information they need. It is clear the authors put in a great deal of effort to provide a nutrition textbook that is widely usable and can replace the need for students to purchase a traditional textbook. I appreciate the use of a wide variety of sources of information that are reputable, leading to a textbook with accurate information. I would love to see updates to this text to include more current and relevant topics, updated information, and more detail in some specific content areas, as well as rearranging of some content to make it easier for students to link foundational content with application.
This book goes into great detail in some topics, yet fully ignores others. There is no mention of Orthrorexia, which is common for my students who are majoring in Health and/or Physical Education. read more
This book goes into great detail in some topics, yet fully ignores others. There is no mention of Orthrorexia, which is common for my students who are majoring in Health and/or Physical Education.
This text contains fat-phobic messaging, I am seeking a size neutral-approach to food science and eating for my students.
The content might be relevant to some readers, and seems easily update-able.
The text is perfectly clear, yet the images leave a non-Pacific reader wondering what the practical applications can be.
The text is internally consistent in terms of terminology and framework.
I have no criticisms of the modularity.
For an introductory course for non- majors, I would combine the chapters on major and trace minerals. This level of detail is not relevant for an introductory course.
The interface is a pleasure to navigate.
No grammatical errors were detected.
Working with mostly first-generation students an at urban Midwest university, I am not sure how they would perceive the island feel of this text. While I appreciate the lovely photos and tropical scenes featured, it might make nutrition more of a foreign concept for students who submit 3 day food diaries that don’t contain any fruit. This book promotes the classic diet-mentality found in so many of these textbooks. Advice likes this: Calm your “sweet tooth” by eating fruits, such as berries or an apple (chapter 4) is not relevant or helpful to any of my students. Since some of my student grew up in food insecure homes and continue to struggle with finances, I would appreciate a chapter/section on shopping/eating on a budget.
I really wanted to fall in love with this book as it seems very inviting.
The majority of my students fall into two camps. The first group identities as "health conscious" and follow diet trends. Some are fully Orthorexic. The second group pays no mind to food other than fleeting thoughts of shame around very savory foods. Trying to find a book for all has proven very difficult. I am confident that it will leave my students in the second camp who already think Nutrition is for “those people” feeling further disconnected to this very relatable subject.
The book covers detailed Chapters 1-18 and it is good to note that the material demonstrates a variety of topics. The textbook gives readers a broad perspective of nutrition. read more
The book covers detailed Chapters 1-18 and it is good to note that the material demonstrates a variety of topics. The textbook gives readers a broad perspective of nutrition.
The material that makes up Chapters 1-18 appears to be accurate and aligns with content in other nutritional resources. The material that details the chapters is unbiased, fair, and without conflict in the opinion of the reviewer. Accurate nutritional facts are given throughout the textbook and students using the textbook can interpret the information as they wish. Of course, when individuals read various nutritional information from other sources, a compilation of the information could cause some confusion as to what to believe. It is nice to see that the textbook displays basic and accurate information for an introductory course that is easy for reader understanding.
Up-to-date content is displayed throughout the textbook. The textbook covers basic nutrition; basic nutrition regarding fats, proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and water does not change. Nutrition is nutrition. The textbook represents up-to-date nutrition facts.
The textbook material in each chapter is easy to understand, and the language is basic for an introductory nutrition course. Standard terminology makes up each chapter, and the chapter names are basic for reader understanding as to what can be anticipated regarding the matierial that will be included.
The terminology and basic information that makes up each of the chapters appears to be consistent with the contents that typically is included in other introductory nutrition textbooks. Each chapter looks similar in terms of structure and organization.
Each chapter divides the textbook into segments. The chapters are consistently organized beginning with an Introduction. It is good to see that even before the introduction, the beginning of the chapter starts with a quote and a nice image that could motivate the student. Chapter content demonstrates clear organization and is presented so that students can easily read and interpret it.
The textbook and chapter content are organized and structured. The chapters are well presented and easy to read to produce student understanding. The material has a nice sequence, and the students can use the objectives in the front of each chapter to follow along with how the material is arranged from the beginning of the chapter to the end of the chapter.
Readers can easily navigate through the textbook and chapters because of the consistency of components from one chapter to another; readers can easily locate chapter components. The navigation is easy just as a textbook should be presented as readers will know the expectations as they move through the chapters. The table of contents helps with the navigation. Also, when moving through the chapters, evidence of the hierarchy of material is clearly indicated through the headings and subheadings allowing readers to navigate easily throughout chapter material. The images help with the navigation as well. Alt-tags are not available to describe the images which would be great for accessibility purposes as readers navigate the textbook. Tables are used to organize information and to help with navigation. The tables include appropriate table headers and enable readers to navigate and understand the information. Most links within the textbook were working properly, but some were broken and not functioning.
Correct grammar is apparent throughout the textbook.
The textbook demonstrates a respectful tone throughout.
Wonderful textbook! The textbook is perfect for a 16-week semester and includes topics that are typical of a basic nutrition course. Pictures and quotes at the beginning of each chapter are nice additions as well as links to websites and other graphics. The authors spent the time and energy into developing ideas to make the textbook suitable for its readers. This textbook was well-organized and easy to follow and shows lots of consideration for readers who will use the textbook, perhaps as a resource or as the primary source for their course. The objectives are fine for an introductory course in nutrition and align with Bloom’s Taxonomy. The objectives located at the beginning of each chapter include measurable verbs with the verb “describe” frequently used in every chapter. It would have been nice to see a variety of measurable verbs such as describe, discuss, explain, etc. implemented into the objectives throughout the chapters. In addition to the 18 chapters, the textbook includes an appendix. When navigating through the textbook, it is evident that an appendix is included because it is identified in the table of contents. However, when reviewing the appendix, the only indication includes “appendix” in the footnote section of the appendix, so the is hard to locate without a title. Course pages have links, which is a nice component to the online textbook, although it would have been good to click on a label instead of a link to direct the readers to a specific page. Over, nice textbook and wonderful for the readers who will use it for their classes.
The objectives are fine for an introductory course in nutrition and align with Bloom’s Taxonomy. The objectives located at the beginning of each chapter include measurable verbs with the verb “describe” frequently used in every chapter. A suggestion is to implement a variety of measurable verbs such as describe, discuss, explain, etc. throughout the chapters.
In addition to the 18 chapters, the textbook includes an appendix. When navigating through the textbook, it is evident that an appendix is included because it is identified in the table of contents. However, when reviewing the appendix, the only indication includes “appendix” in the footnote section of the appendix. A suggestion is to include a heading for the appendix. Also, what should the name of the appendix be—"Appendix A” if Appendix B does not exist or name it “Appendix” only.
Course pages have links which is a nice component to the online textbook. The links include the web address such as https://open.umn.edu/opentextbooks/textbooks/human-nutrition#Reviews/ A suggestion is to replace the link with a label that is easy-to-understand or one that is meaningful. For example, use the label “Open Textbook Library” rather than https://open.umn.edu/opentextbooks/textbooks/human-nutrition#Reviews/
The textbook covers key information covered in an introductory nutrition course including an introduction to nutrition applications, macronutrients, micronutrients, scientific methods in nutrition, nutrition across the lifespan, etc. The authors... read more
The textbook covers key information covered in an introductory nutrition course including an introduction to nutrition applications, macronutrients, micronutrients, scientific methods in nutrition, nutrition across the lifespan, etc. The authors do a good job covering these topics concisely using clear language that is appropriate for an introductory level. The text includes a table of contents to help the reader navigate through the information, but does not have an index. Further, each section also includes links and citations which students can use to increase comprehension. However, some of the links are now broken.
There were a few areas not covered in the text which should be considered as they are typically covered in nutrition courses and would enhance students understanding of nutrition. The text does not cover nutrition for clinical populations, (i.e. diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, hypertension, etc.) including preventative strategies. Further the text does not provide information on direct or indirect calorimetry, important measurement methods in nutrition. Further, it would be helpful to include more information on complications associated with specific nutrient deficiency and excess intake, as well as provide examples of food sources for each nutrient.
The text provides unbiased information that is cited throughout using peer-reviewed references. While the information provided was accurate there was missing content that may cause students to not fully understand various nutritional topics.
It found that much of the basic nutritional information will not need to be updated. The text will need to be updated as new dietary guidelines, reference intakes, and results from nutritional research are released. However, this should not be difficult as many of the links provided in the text are updated as new information comes out and references are providing in the text to show professors when information was sourced from and where updates are required.
While most of the text appears to be up-to-date I did notice a few broken links already that would require the professor providing a new source for students to refer to. Further, some sections house outdated information, such as the 2008 physical activity guidelines which should be updated to the most recent information and sources (2018 physical activity guidelines).
The text was written in a clear and concise manner making it easy to read and appropriate for an introductory course. New terms were explained when presented and the text included figures, tables, and photos to help visualize the written concepts.
The chapter organization was consistent throughout the textbook. Each chapter included an introduction to the topic being covered, learning objectives, and concise subsections. Further, the text is consistent in regard to terminology.
The text is divided into chapters and then subsections which are clearly defined and easy to follow. The subsections within the chapters divide the larger topic into smaller reading sections making it more accessible to students. The text is not overly self-referential, allowing professors to reorder sections taught in their course without disrupting reading or student understanding.
The text is easy to follow and organized in a way that authors build on content discussed in previous sections. However, the writing still allows the professor to reorder the sections in their course. That being said, I would recommend that nutrition applications in Chapter 12 be presented earlier in the text as it is important for students to understand how to read a food label, and recommended dietary intake values and ranges for specific nutrients.
The text had a table of contents making it easy to navigate to specific chapters and subsections. However, within the text there were some broken links leading to navigation issues for the reader. All images and charts appeared clear with no distortion.
The text is well written. I did not notice any grammatical errors.
The text was not culturally insensitive or offensive. The examples provided are heavily based on Hawaiian culture and therefore may not be as relevant to students residing in different states.
Overall, I thought this text book did a good job providing key information covered in an introductory nutrition course. The authors did a good job keeping the sections clear and concise, as well as organized in a consistent manner. Further, the links and sources provided supplement the text nicely and I believe enhance the student’s learning.
It covers all of the topics one would expect in and intro nutrition class. read more
It covers all of the topics one would expect in and intro nutrition class.
The accuracy seemed high.
Content is up to date. There are shaded "focus" sections with interesting details related to the topics in the chapter (example: the "Fat-burning Zone" in the "Fuel Sources" chapter).
I found the book to be very easy to understand.
The structure is very consistent and easy to understand. I didn't notice any inconsistency in terminology.
Each section is easy to understand.
The organization is excellent. Each chapter is organized in the same fashion.
My only suggestion is to allow the contents outline to be visible no matter how far the reader scrolls down. After I finished each section, I had to scroll back up to move on to the next one.
I did not find grammatical errors.
I did not notice any offensive examples.
I found it to be an excellent textbook.
The book covers all major content needed for an introductory nutrition course, including basics/overview of nutrition, research, and the scientific method and types of scientific studies; anatomy and physiology of human body systems; water and... read more
The book covers all major content needed for an introductory nutrition course, including basics/overview of nutrition, research, and the scientific method and types of scientific studies; anatomy and physiology of human body systems; water and electrolytes; carbohydrates (including alcohol); lipids; proteins; vitamins; minerals; energy concepts including intake and expenditure; nutrition applications including DRIs, MyPlate, and Dietary Guidelines; nutrition throughout the lifespan (pregnancy, infancy-toddler, childhood-adolescence, and all adult stages); sports nutrition, food safety, and nutritional issues such as food insecurity, malnutrition, and careers in nutrition.
While some sections within chapters were short, I was impressed that they were included. For example, this book addressed all major body systems while many other basic nutrition textbooks only include the Digestive System and ignore all the other systems.
It takes a holistic approach by bringing in other aspects of health like the importance of sleep and physical activity, and negative consequences of recreational drug and alcohol use, in addition to the health consequences of personal food choices.
There is no index or glossary; however, in the digital age a search feature replaces this function, and there is an easy search feature located at the top of every page.
The text is unbiased, even when addressing hot topics, and mostly free of errors. When referring to vitamin A as an antioxidant in various places - it should probably be corrected to either provitamin A or beta carotene.
I really like how most sections have citations, however, some don’t. Providing citations improves trust in the accuracy of the information.
The text references the current Dietary Guidelines (2015-2020) in most, but not all, places where it might be relevant. For example, in Ch 8 Energy, Table 8.4 Estimated Daily Calorie Needs cites the 2010 Dietary Guidelines. Even though the information hasn’t changed, the citations should be updated so that the reader trusts that the information presented is up-to-date and accurate.
In-text citations are used with full citations listed at the end of each section, along with working hyperlinks to the sources.
The book does an excellent job of making the topic relevant to everyday lives. For example, there are vignettes throughout the book called Career Connections and Everyday Connection that bring relevance to one’s employment and real-life personal applications respectively. The Comparing Diets section looks at different popular diets, though it could be expanded to include the extremely popular keto diet, and hot topics are addressed such as whether or not “HFCS” is as bad as the common claims.
Lifestyle diseases are discussed within the relevant chapters - for example, obesity, diabetes, and heart disease are addressed in the carbohydrate chapter, and are referenced in other chapters where relevant, for example, obesity is again referenced in the Energy chapter.
We are bombarded with nutritional headlines all the time, which are easily misconstrued/misunderstood. The Nutrition and the Media section on “using eyes of discernment” describes that when reading headlines of nutrition it is important to know how to evaluate the claims. Additionally, a list of criteria for evaluating information on websites is provided, as well as a comprehensive list of trustworthy sources (USDA, AND, HHS, CDC).
The book does a great job of clarifying nutritional advice and/or scientific findings. For example, when mentioning that there is evidence that vitamin C intake is linked to a reduced risk of certain cancers, it clarifies that the reduced risk is the result of eating foods naturally rich in vitamin C, not from supplements.
I really like that when discussing the DRI for carbs that they quality which carbs are better (whole grains, fruit, veggies, etc) and which ones to avoid (highly processed junk) when meeting recommendations.
The book has good figures to illustrate the written text. Figures and photos were appropriate to help visualize concepts.
Learning Objectives are in a colored box at the beginning of each chapter. There are some inconsistencies with the Tools for Change vignettes - sometimes they are in a colored box, sometimes not.
Within the text are vocabulary words that can be clicked on for the definition, but it seems to be limited. For example, in the Basic Biology, Anatomy, and Physiology chapter, in the third paragraph, it lists four macromolecules - carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids - but only “lipids” is hyperlinked to a definition.
There is minimal self-referential text, so it would be relatively easy to reorganize different chapters. Additionally, relevant information is reviewed for context in chapters where applicable, rather than referring back to previous chapters for the information.
The book is very well organized and presented in a common basic nutrition order. It also has a comprehensive, hyperlinked table of contents, to include not only the main chapters but also the sub-chapters.
The only part I found a little confusing is with the introduction for each chapter. You only know what chapter you’re in based on the table of contents which is automatically hidden as you’re reading the book, so if you’re scrolling from the bottom of the page, suddenly you’re at an “introduction” but you have to look at TOC to see which chapter it’s the introduction for (though often the objectives gives a really good hint).
It’s published in Pressbooks and very easy to navigate either by the TOC or scroll by page. I do like how you can open the TOC and it shows you exactly what chapter and section you’re currently in.
There are working hyperlinks, and it’s mobile-friendly with easy navigation, easy reading, and figures and tables are not distorted. Additionally, there’s an option to download the book as a pdf if the reader needs the option of reading offline.
I didn’t find any grammatical issues, but I did notice one minor spelling error - Career Conenction in Chapter 1 under the Research and the Scientific Method section.
It is not culturally insensitive in any way; in fact, I found it very culturally relevant to the audience in which it is geared. In this sense, it’s not just a generic textbook that fails to acknowledge culturally relevant nutrition. The book is geared toward the people of Hawaii and greater Pacific, however, the vast majority of nutritional information is applicable to a wider audience. As an OER resource, it could easily be adapted to other geographic areas (or remove the specific mentions of Hawaii and the greater Pacific to make it more generic). Alternatively, it could be further adapted by adding other culturally relevant nutritional components for an inclusive classroom experience (with this in mind, I can envision building an assignment around this idea for students to bring in their own cultural food and relate it to nutrition.)
I really like this textbook for a course on basic nutrition. I plan to adapt it for my area and use it in my Principles of Nutrition course.
This text provides a well-written table of contents, but has no index. Throughout the text there were some words that were highlighted and could be clicked on to receive a definition; however, I didn’t see a glossary. I enjoy how the authors... read more
This text provides a well-written table of contents, but has no index. Throughout the text there were some words that were highlighted and could be clicked on to receive a definition; however, I didn’t see a glossary. I enjoy how the authors placed sources at the end of every page so the reader could look for further information as needed.
This text covers basic nutrition well. It presents and discusses most relevant topics in nutrition. This a good basic textbook for a basic nutrition course. It provided practical nutrition tips that students can begin implementing in their everyday lives. I do think this would be a good textbook to supplement my in-course lectures, discussions, and activities. I would like to have seen more detail when discussing chronic diseases and nutrition.
The content provided in this text is accurate. I did not see any errors or biases.
As with all textbook materials, the information in this text will need to be updated as new dietary guidelines and recommendations are released. This will not be difficult for me to do for my course as I believe that the updates will be easy to implement.
As with all text, the material and sources in this text will need to be continually checked for relevance and timeliness. All links will need to be checked to make sure they still work. I did notice a few broken links, but I didn’t check all of them.
The text is clearly written and provides description of nutrition terms for the reader as appropriate.
I didn’t see any discrepancies in consistency.
This text is well developed as the materials are broken into chapter and smaller reading sections within the chapter. It is well organized and readable.
I do believe that the content is presented in a logical manner; however, in my opinion, the content in Chapter 12: Nutrition Applications would be better placed near the beginning of the book. I would prefer to have the macronutrients (carbohydrates, fat, protein) discussed before the information on water.
I would also like to have seen more examples on how to calculate nutritional needs (AMDR; g protein/kg; estimated energy calculation examples) and how to implement those in daily eating patterns. I would also like to have seen a description and discussion on organic farming and foods as they are hot topics in nutrition.
The book did a nice job of reviewing basic anatomy and physiology for those student who may not have had those courses yet.
Personally, I would love to have video links embedded in the text. I would also like to see more nutrition exercises or Q&A’s that make the students stop and think about certain topics. I can always add these to the material.
I found no issues with the interface of the textbook. The images and graphics are used well throughout the textbook.
The text contains no grammatical errors, that I noted.
I really enjoy how this text highlights the Hawaiian food culture. While this is not personally applicable to students in my state, I think is complements our cross cultural foods course (another course taught in our program) and think my students would enjoy learning more about their culture. I did not find this textbook culturally insensitive or offensive in any way, but would like to have seen more inclusivity.
Overall, I think this is a good textbook for a basic nutrition course and look forward to using it in the future.
The text covers all of the topics I include in my 200-level community college nutrition science course, but it lacks comprehensive sections about fad diets, eating disorders, and disordered eating. It does not contain an index, glossary, or... read more
The text covers all of the topics I include in my 200-level community college nutrition science course, but it lacks comprehensive sections about fad diets, eating disorders, and disordered eating. It does not contain an index, glossary, or complete DRI tables (DRI for specific nutrients are listed in their respective sections in chapters). It lacks a section covering evaluation of nutrition information, identifying misinformation, and appropriate nutrition experts and resources. I would like the section about dietary fiber expanded. Calculation formulas or recommendations are presented without sample calculations. For instance, the AMDR for total fat is noted, and the EER formula is noted, but there are no sample calculations. I have students apply what they're learning to their own intake (through dietary recall assignment), which helps them learn the material while also making it relevant to their own lives. Even with sample calculations, it can be a challenge to make the recommendations come to life.
I did not note any inaccuracies except listing vitamin A as an antioxidant (beta-carotene is not discussed).
Content is up-to-date, but some of the links are broken, e.g., to IOM for DRI.
The text was well-written and easy to read. New terms were explained, but a glossary would be helpful.
The format was consistent throughout the text. Each chapter had an introduction, learning objectives, and short sections with subtitles.
The text is presented in short sections with subtitles. These provide for ease of reading and quick reference for assignments.
In general, the topics were presented in a logical flow. I liked each chapter's introduction with an example relative to Hawaii'n culture, though most of my students would not relate to poi or ahi poke. Chapter 12, Nutrition Applications, should be presented sooner. I usually cover this information in Chapter/Unit 2, called Planning a Healthy Diet. This is where I cover the DRI, MyPlate, food labels, and nutrient-dense choices. This then allows me to re-visit these topics in greater detail when I discuss each nutrient. It also encourages my students early on to begin thinking about healthful changes in their own lives. I also found it odd to cover sodium, potassium, and chloride in Chapter 3, Water and Electrolytes, rather than in Chapter 10, Major Minerals. Sodium, potassium, and chloride are listed in the Chapter 10 introduction and summary table. As previously stated, I would have liked an expanded section or even a chapter about fad diets, body image, and eating disorders following the weight management information that's presented in Chapter 8.
I enjoyed being able to use the search function to quickly access topics. At first it was frustrating not to see where I had gone in the text until I accidentally learned to click the contents arrow and scroll down to see which chapter was open. This could be easily addressed with instructions to students. Likewise, I would instruct them to use control-F to search for terms within a chapter.
I did not detect any grammatical errors.
The text is not culturally offensive in any way. I enjoyed the focus on Hawaii'n culture. However, this is not inclusive of a variety of backgrounds. I teach in a rural area in Oregon, and most of my students live here. Many of the food examples would not be relevant to them.
Overall, I think it is a well-written and presented introductory nutrition science text. I liked the practical applications for students in the Everyday Connection entries. I wish there were more of these, e.g., in the vitamins and minerals sections. I would consider this book if I switch to an OER text.
The text covers all major areas typically found in an undergraduate introductory human nutrition text and incorporates a Hawaiian perspective in each chapter. The text has a table of contents that includes the chapter title and main subheadings;... read more
The text covers all major areas typically found in an undergraduate introductory human nutrition text and incorporates a Hawaiian perspective in each chapter. The text has a table of contents that includes the chapter title and main subheadings; however, the text does not include an index or glossary.
Content within the text is accurate and presented without bias. Additional details in some areas of the text (e.g., disease progression, how BMR is calculated, inclusion of additional weight management theories beyond the set point theory) would enhance the content.
Most of the text appears to be up-to-date. Some areas (e.g., 2008 physical activity guidelines, 2005-2008 NHANES data, sodium and potassium DRIs, 2010 Healthy Eating Index) should be updated to include the most recent information available. The text includes a search function which makes it easy to find all relevant sections when an update is implemented. The text also includes citation of research which is helpful for learners to read more detailed information and for instructors/developers to determine where updates are needed.
The text is easy to read and clearly explains/describes new terminology.
The text used a consistent framework throughout the text that included learning objectives, major section headings, sub-headings, and “everyday connections”.
Each chapter is set up as a module and has clearly defined sections within each chapter to allow for easy access to individual sections/readings. The text includes relatively small paragraphs of reading; large topics are appropriately divided up using subheadings to enhance learner reading of each topic.
Most topics in the text are presented in a logical order. Some topics (e.g., BMI and body composition presented in the human body/digestion module instead of the more traditional placement in the energy/weight management module) seem out of place and may lead to learning disruption since related concepts are presented in two different modules. Chapter 12 content on Nutrition Applications may be better to incorporate earlier in the text prior to any nutrients so learners have contextual information on DRIs, AMDRs, and food labels before encountering recommendations related to individual nutrients.
The online version of the text is easy to navigate. Images and charts are clear. One suggestion for improvement is to incorporate alt-tags for all images to provide accessibility for learners using a screen reader.
The text is well-written; very few grammatical errors were found.
While the text clearly has a Hawaiian perspective and includes examples that are specific to Hawaii, the text also includes examples and pictures from other races and cultures. The text does not appear to be insensitive or offensive on any topic.
Textbook was missing nutrition analysis, chronic diseases were not covered in the same depth of many nutrition text books (missing risks, prevention strategies), only 1 food guide was introduced, many examples were specific to the Hawaian... read more
Textbook was missing nutrition analysis, chronic diseases were not covered in the same depth of many nutrition text books (missing risks, prevention strategies), only 1 food guide was introduced, many examples were specific to the Hawaian population, vitamin, mineral and water could have been organized better (functions, deficiency, excess, and food sources), little mention of eating styles to prevent disease, pictures were all examples of Hawaian foods and people (not culturally diverse).
The other area that was inconsistent was in the vitamin and minerals section. The authors seemed to highlight the vitamins and minerals in different ways. For example copper was a small paragraph while iron was presented in multiple pages of information. Yes iron has some substantial roles in our body but the text failed to address even the basic functions, deficiency, excess, and food sources.
Accuracy was good, I gave a 4 because the way some research articles were presented may confuse students who have no nutritional knowledge. Presentation seemed disjointed.
Many CDC stats were from 2000 or 2008 when new research is available from these same sites 2016-2017.
Only 1 food guide was presented. I did LOVE that very little was mentioned by the USDA.
As the previous comment 2000 and 2008 dates are becoming irrelevant when new statistics by the CDC, FDA, USDA, WHO, IOM, and NIH are as current as 2016-2018. Very little use of url links which could keep the text more up to date.
Also I noticed no specific statistics were given regarding CVD, Diabetes hypertension, Caner and metabolic syndrome (to list a few of the big ones). This helps keep the text more relevant long term but in a way that is causing a disadvantage. Nutrition texts should present latest numbers and trends so students can see where we have been and where we are going. I wish they would have used more url links.
I did like how the text was presented. Information was presented in clarity avoiding a lot of "complicated" terminology. This text would work well for a range of learning and reading styles. Grammer and spelling was accurate and clear. Use of terminology was good. Text would be good for 8th grade through 4 year University.
Yes the textbook followed the same format throughout all 667 pages. I liked that the authors were ok not filling up each page and allowed for shorter chapters that were not overwhelming to read.
Yes, as stated above the chapters were reasonable, not overwhelming the reader with enormous text. I liked the length of each section.
I do wish more sub headings would have been bolded or separated out to highlight important areas. For example, when teaching students about vitamins you will start with Vitamin D, functions (list them out either bullet or paragraph) then new bold heading, excess and deficiency states, etc. The textbook ran all this info into small paragraphs. For a student reading the text they may have trouble identifying the important areas to focus on and what is background information.
Some of the text is organized well while the other parts were fragmented. For example, it is easier to teach about the functions of sodium, deficiency and excess states, food sources, and chronic disease risk all in one place. Sodium (using sodium only as 1 example) came up in multiple areas of the text. Chronic disease sections can highlight risks and prevention strategies again but all the fragmentation could make it hard for students to synthesize and remember the information. It would be easy to get lost in the material with this type of organization.
The interface of the text works fine. I feel confident most students would find the text easy to navigate.
I did not find any errors in grammar.
The text is written for Hawaii. Pictures and most examples were related to the Hawaian population.
It is the best OER nutrition book that I have seen so far. Finding good OER nutrition text is a huge challenge.
I enjoyed a text that did not seemed heavily influenced by the USDA but would have liked to see more references to NIH, Harvard School of Public Health, Cleveland Clinic, And other universities that are conducting a lot of new nutrition research.
Nutritional assessment needs to be included .I would also encourage a section about reading nutritional research.
I would have also like to see more in depth information presented in the life stages section. This is such an important area, especially learning about how to promote healthy eating
behaviors accross the life span.
This book provides an accessible, introductory discussion of traditional topics in human nutrition. There is a table of contents; however, there is no comprehensive index of glossary. read more
This book provides an accessible, introductory discussion of traditional topics in human nutrition. There is a table of contents; however, there is no comprehensive index of glossary.
The content of the book is generally accurate and the citation of recent research is helpful. There are, however, several places where necessary superscripts/subscripts are not used, leading to possible inaccurate interpretation of content. Also, the discussion of "The Atom" in chapter 8 erroneously states about nutrient energy sources: "The energy released by breaking those bonds is used to form molecules of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)." In truth, breaking bonds ALWAYS requires energy INPUT. Energy is released because of the overall energy change during the metabolic reactions, not because the bonds are broken per se.
The overall content of the text is up-to-date and relevant. One inevitable concern is that a number of the links to outside web pages are broken or dead (for example: the USDA dietary analysis pages, the TEE worksheet in Chapter 8, the WHO and FAO nutrient requirements page in Chapter 12, let's move.gov in Chapter 14, FSA Safe Upper Levels page in the Appendix).
I found the text easy to read and new terms well-explained.
The text was internally consistent and works well as a whole.
The chapters were very modular, short sections, each with a descriptive subheading. One improvement would be to number the submodules within each chapter. This would improve the ease with which an instructor could assign reading.
The book follows a clear organization. Each topic is introduced an built up carefully from the basics. However, in my courses I usually cover most of the topics presented in Chapter 12 and 18 earlier in the course, before discussion of the specific nutrients.
The primary problems noted were several blurry figures, figures with the legend not on the same page and the lack of superscripts/subscripts where appropriate. The on-line version of the book is far superior to using the down-loaded pdf. The pdf is difficult to navigate. For example, the table of contents does not contain active links, so one must scroll through to reach the desired page.
The text is well-written.
No insensitivity or offensiveness in the text was detected. One note is that particular, specific Hawaiian cultural examples is used throughout the text.
I found this book to be at just the level I am looking for for my non-majors course and I look forward to using it for my course this coming year!
This textbook does an excellent job of covering the major nutritional topics that you would consider for an undergraduate course. I would have liked for some figures to go into more detail, but overall it is very well done. read more
This textbook does an excellent job of covering the major nutritional topics that you would consider for an undergraduate course. I would have liked for some figures to go into more detail, but overall it is very well done.
The textbook was definitely unbiased and uses accurate, concise wording in explaining topics. I did not notice any errors in regards to misspelled words, but some of the figures could be more clear.
The content is up-to-date and is easily modifiable which is important since guidelines and recommendations are updated often.
I've reviewed many textbooks to use for my course and this text has the most straightforward approach that I've come across for an undergraduate nutrition course. This is a feature that I believe students will appreciate and will assist in their understanding of the material.
The textbook is consistent with it's flow of content. I would suggest moving chapter 12 on Nutrition Applications and making it chapter 2.
Yes, the modules are very easy to access and are arranged in an appropriate manner.
The content is arranged in a logical order, however, I would suggest moving chapter 12 on Nutrition Applications and making it chapter 2 - this is my major change to recommend.
Most images were clear and easy to read, however, there were 2-3 figures/images that were of poor quality.
I did not notice any grammatical errors.
Nothing within the text came across as insensitive or offensive to me.
After reviewing many textbooks to start utilizing in my Principles of Nutrition and Human Development course, this is the text that I will start utilizing this fall. I believe the authors done an excellent job at organizing this text and I believe that students will appreciate this resource.
Table of Contents
- I. Chapter 1. Basic Concepts in Nutrition
- II. Chapter 2. The Human Body
- III. Chapter 3. Water and Electrolytes
- IV. Chapter 4. Carbohydrates
- V. Chapter 5. Lipids
- VI. Chapter 6. Protein
- VII. Chapter 7. Alcohol
- VIII. Chapter 8. Energy
- IX. Chapter 9. Vitamins
- X. Chapter 10. Major Minerals
- XI. Chapter 11. Trace Minerals
- XII. Chapter 12. Nutrition Applications
- XIII. Chapter 13. Lifespan Nutrition From Pregnancy to the Toddler Years
- XIV. Chapter 14. Lifespan Nutrition During Childhood and Adolescence
- XV. Chapter 15. Lifespan Nutrition in Adulthood
- XVI. Chapter 16. Performance Nutrition
- XVII. Chapter 17. Food Safety
- XVIII. Chapter 18. Nutritional Issues
About the Book
This textbook serves as an introduction to nutrition for undergraduate students and is the OER textbook for the FSHN 185 The Science of Human Nutrition course at the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa. The book covers basic concepts in human nutrition, key information about essential nutrients, basic nutritional assessment, and nutrition across the lifespan.
About the Contributors
Marie Kainoa Fialkowski Revilla is a Native Hawaiian faculty member in the Department of Human Nutrition, Food, and Animal Sciences at the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa. She teaches a number of courses in nutrition both face to face and online. She is dedicated to developing readily available and accessible nutrition education materials and curricula that reflect Hawai‘i and the Pacific to ensure that her students can relate to the content being learned. She enjoys spending time with her ‘ohana (family) at their home in Ahuimanu on the island of O‘ahu.
Dr. Alan Titchenal received a PhD in nutrition from the University of California at Davis with emphasis on exercise physiology and physiological chemistry. His work at the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa has focused on the broad areas of nutrition and human performance and translation of nutrition science for public consumption. This has included the “GotNutrients?” project that provides daily messages on topics related to nutrition, fitness, and health and the publication of over 600 articles in the Honolulu Star-Advertiser newspaper.
Jennifer Draper is a Lecturer in the Department of Human Nutrition, Food and Animal Sciences. She received her MA in Nutrition Science from the University of Texas at Austin. She is a Registered Dietitian in private practice specializing in eating disorders and emotional over-eating. She enjoys interacting with students and is passionate about helping people have a healthy relationship with food and their bodies.