Human Anatomy Lab Manual
Copyright Year: 2018
Publisher: Mavs Open Press
Conditions of Use
This text covers the major anatomical structures suitable for an undergraduate anatomy course. I appreciated that each lab had a pre-lab and post-lab assignment. read more
This text covers the major anatomical structures suitable for an undergraduate anatomy course. I appreciated that each lab had a pre-lab and post-lab assignment.
No glaring errors noted.
Relevant structures for an undergraduate course. The content at this level does not change regularly, so this resource should stay useful for some period of time.
Some images are quite complex, and text might be better if a simpler image was used.
Framework for the labs is consistent throughout. Pre-lab, lab exercise, post-lab.
Content is divided into logical sections containing related structures.
Content organization makes logical sense.
Some images are of poorer quality than others. Additionally, images are of varying depth and detail. A more consistent expectation would be beneficial.
No significant errors noted.
No glaring problems noted.
Could be a great text to use bits and pieces from and each unit is able to stand alone as its own individual laboratory session.
No prelab for respiratory system or spinal cord/spinal nerves labs No comparison of CNS vs PNS No available table to itemize all aspects of cranial nerves (sensory functions and/or motor functions) read more
No prelab for respiratory system or spinal cord/spinal nerves labs
No comparison of CNS vs PNS
No available table to itemize all aspects of cranial nerves (sensory functions and/or motor functions)
Lab 1: cranial/caudal are used in animal anatomy, superior/inferior is preferred for humans
Lab 2: post lab question 6, sup/inf should be replaced with proximal/distal as they refer to bones of an extremity
Lab 10: dorsal/ventral needs to be updated to anterior/posterior
Content is comparable to most other basic anatomy and physiology textbooks. Changes will likely not be needed in the next 5 years other than those edits already suggested.
Vocab words are italicized making it easy to find
Directions for dissections are well done with important valuable notes added in bold or at the bottom of paragraphs.
For difficult to pronounce terms, it would be helpful to add in pronunciations
Vocabulary is ordered alphabetically and not by lab unit
Formatting is consistent throughout. Once readers get a sense of the flow of the information, it remains predictable throughout the labs.
Pictures for identification are useful and in color and clearly labeled. Improvements could be made in the formatting of the numbered vocabulary provided in the tables to make it more visually appealing. Histology sections may be difficult for a novice student to utilize, and perhaps could use a template to model after.
Hyperlinks to other sections are very useful. The material is organized in a logical way, but not in the typical way that most anatomy and physiology text books organize the chapters by. For instance, typically the integumentary system is near the beginning and the muscular system usually pair near the skeletal system.
Easy to read and follow along. No lengthy paragraph discussions that can be distracting.
Pg 35, “constitute comprise” is a confusing order, and adds unnecessarily complex language to an already difficult subject.
There are no insensitive or culturally ignorant comments or language used. Images are plain and can be applied to many individuals. The only differentiation is made in the reproductive section between males and females, with no explanation of other examples of sex or gender. This does not seem appropriate in the context of the depth that each lab provides, but it could be added if revisions are made.
This lab manual covers the major body systems typically studied in the undergraduate anatomy lab. In each lab, Each system has an introduction, followed by a pre-lab where students are asked to label structures that they will then see in the lab.... read more
This lab manual covers the major body systems typically studied in the undergraduate anatomy lab. In each lab, Each system has an introduction, followed by a pre-lab where students are asked to label structures that they will then see in the lab. The lab exercises are organized as hands-on activities, where students are presented models and asked to label specific structures. The exercise is then followed by a post lab that helps to reinforce what the students have learned about each system.
No errors in the material are noted.
This is a lab manual to study anatomy. The subject matter of this book will not change.
The text is clearly written. The figures used in the pre-labs are taken from other open sources, and are best seen using a downloaded version rather than viewing online. Additional pictures of cadaveric or other mammalian structures such as the heart would e beneficial especially when students are asked to label structures in a preserved heart.
All terms that are presented are consistent from lab to lab. During the pre-labs, students use terminology learned in the first exercise which then reinforces the concepts.
The text is written in short paragraphs within each lab introduction. Subheadings are not used
The specific organization does not follow the typical organization for this material in published lab manuals, or in textbooks for human anatomy. This is not a big issue, since students can access any of the modules independently of the others, but some instructors may find it bothersome.
The interface allows the user to access each lab, and once inside each lab, there are buttons that allow the user to access material in a linear fashion. The user can access other labs easily by going back to the content button.
No grammatical issues found.
This manual contains no culturally insensitive material. The only system that would show differences between races is the integumentary system, and there is no mention of the mechanisms by which the color of skin is produced. The presence of melanocytes contributing to skin color should be added.
This book is designed for a face to face laboratory where in the students are given practice in identifying specific structures of the different human body systems. The students are instructed to use the terms to label these structures in the lab. In each exercise, the students are instructed to ask a TA to verify their labeling. The author should be aware that not all institutions have TAs, and I would recommend that this be changed to "instructor".
Does include a helpful index and glossary of anatomical terms arranged by lab sections. The material is comprehensive save for the absence of labs on the endocrine and lymphatic systems. read more
Does include a helpful index and glossary of anatomical terms arranged by lab sections. The material is comprehensive save for the absence of labs on the endocrine and lymphatic systems.
The information is accurate with only very occasional editing errors. I saw no evidence of academic bias.
The content is up to date and arranged in a logical and useful manner.
The text prose is well written and provides clarity and context for easier comprehension.
All labs have a logically consistent framework which should make for more effective use.
Individual labs can be assigned in whatever order deemed best by the instructor.
Each lab is logically organized which should make for a more effective learning experience.
The illustrations used are mostly fine but of inconsistent quality, perhaps due to the constraint of relying on images in the public domain.
I did not pick up on any significant grammatical errors.
I did not notice any culturally insensitive or offensive material.
This text is designed as an on-line open source lab manual for a single semester college level course in human anatomy. Covering the vast breadth of human anatomy in one semester is a challenging task requiring prioritization of the most relevant and crucial information along with clarity of organization and presentation. The authors of this manual have endeavored to take on and navigating these challenges.
The manual is divided into 10 labs, each of which roughly parallels the chapter organization of standard human anatomy texts with the notable exception that the endocrine and lymphatic systems are not included. Labs can be assigned and performed in whatever order an instructor deems appropriate. The first lab is appropriately on anatomical language and practical use of this information is reinforced by exercises in all of the remaining labs.
There is very clear and well thought out consistency in the organization of each lab. Each starts with a list of measurable outcomes followed by a well written synopsis of the anatomy and physiology of the system being explored. These are followed by prelab exercises that may include having students use anatomical terms relating to that lab appropriately and /or several illustrations with blank leader lines requiring that students identify anatomical structures of the organs or tissues covered in that lab. These are designed to prepare students to get the most out of the lab activities that will follow.
Lab activities may consist of lists of anatomical parts to identify on models available in the lab, exercises in drawing what is viewed in histological slides of the tissues or reporting what is seen, group involvement in exploring questions, and/or dissection of animal parts. The labs including dissection are those on the brain, special senses, respiratory system, cardiovascular system, and urinary system. They each include written instructions on dissection of a brain and spinal cord, eye, lung, heart, and kidney, respectively. The dissection instructions do not include photo or illustration guidance.
Each lab ends with several post-lab questions designed to encourage critical thinking that will help students gain perspective on whether or not they have “gotten” the important material and concepts in each lab.
The manual ends with vocabulary lists of anatomical names used in each lab grouped according to the relevant lab. The words in these lists are not defined.
The text is very comprehensive and covers all areas appropriate for a single-semester college-level Introductory course in anatomy. All major body systems are covered in appropriate detail (although the relevance of some of the exercises is... read more
The text is very comprehensive and covers all areas appropriate for a single-semester college-level Introductory course in anatomy. All major body systems are covered in appropriate detail (although the relevance of some of the exercises is questioned somewhat by this reviewer: see Relevance below). There is a comprehensive list of vocabulary terms at the end of the text that are not defined but require the student to find that information elsewhere. There is no index per se or glossary of terms that would help a student find a term or concept more easily than by searching through the module of the relevant anatomical system.
Material as presented is largely clear and accurate. However, there are some notable exceptions: Some fill-in-the-blank exercises (e.g. Cardiovascular System Prelab 7) have leader lines that are blank but point to structures that are not in the category a student is asked to label: for example, on p 88, the aorta is not a `coronary surface vessel' yet has a blank leader-line suggesting the student should fill it in. Again, on p. 91, students are asked to label `major systemic arteries' and yet there are 28 blank leader lines pointing to the anatomical figure drawing. It is unclear if all 28 lines are considered `major systemic arteries' or if the student is only supposed to label those that they deduce are major. In other places, it was unclear to this reviewer what some leader lines were pointing to. This is an overall weakness and makes the material confusing for students.
The text provided a thorough examination of the major topics required by a one semester college-level course in Human Anatomy in the ten laboratories that it provides. Each topic (or anatomical system) is introduced with clear learning objectives and a background section that sufficiently summarizes the larger foundational concepts relevant to the function of that system. This reviewer had two concerns however regarding the relevance of the information in this text as it is presented: First, the functional relevance of the vast majority of anatomical structures to be memorized is simply not provided or requested for students to provide . . . anatomical structures are learned by their location only without any understanding of what they do. This is a major flaw in my opinion in that the lack of functional context strips the material of much of what makes it interesting to students (IMHO!). For example (as further described in the Organization section below), the separation of Muscular and Bone Systems into two separate labs (at opposite ends of the text) isolates them from their inherent interconnectedness and the relevance one has to the other in generating movement of the body. Secondly, many of the questions in the pre- and post-lab sections seem somewhat random and in many cases do not reinforce fundamental principles a text should make clear. For example, in the Muscular System post-lab, questions focus on isolated muscles found in the hair follicle, eye, neck, and those used in ventilation . . . all important in their own right but not reinforcing more central, and perhaps relevant, concepts applicable to all muscles.
The text is clearly written in prose that is appropriate for its intended audience (college-level, introductory). General anatomical concepts are typically defined and described in the Background section of each lab. Beyond that, any jargon or technical terms that appear are relevant to the intended goal of having students learn and memorize anatomical structures. As mentioned above, however, students would need an accessory text or other materials to define and identify those terms that are not (which is appropriate for a supplemental laboratory anatomy text).
The text is very consistent in terms of internal framework and terminology. Some variation in the clarity and quality of illustrations and figures is present, but given the difficulty of finding open source figures of high quality for all topics, perhaps this is not surprising.
The text is organized into weekly labs (or modules) by organ system, and each has discrete clearly-defined units: background, pre-lab, lab activities, and post-lab activities. This clear modularity lends itself well to division into smaller units that can be assigned to students in easily managed `chunks'. The structure of this laboratory manual makes it such that each lab can be used an independent stand-alone unit, and is not reliant on preceding labs (with the possible exception of the lab on Anatomical Terminology which would naturally precede the other labs).
Topics in the lab manual are presented in a logical clear fashion with one exception: while most organ systems can be presented as discrete stand-alone units, the skeletal and muscular systems are best (in the opinion of this reviewer) presented together in a regionally-based organization (e.g. bones, surface markings, and muscles of the upper appendicular skeleton, lower appendicular skeleton, axial skeleton, hip, cranium, etc.). In this way, the actions of muscles (e.g. adduction, extension, etc) can be directly related to movement of body parts via their origins and insertions, and the markings of bones understood based on points of muscle attachment and points of articulation. Instead, in this text, bones and their markings appear in lab 2, while muscles appear in lab 10. By doing so, the material loses a significant amount of functional relevance and becomes an exercise in memorization only.
The text was examined both online (through the University of Texas at Arlington Libraries link) and as a downloaded PDF. Both versions functioned flawlessly, and the reader could easily move throughout the text. No distortion or distractions of figures or text were encountered.
No grammatical errors were encountered by this Reviewer in the reading of the text.
The text does not make any cultural references of any kind (in the traditional sense) and therefore is not insensitive or offensive. Examples of anatomical figures lack any indication of race or ethnicity, and where gender is apparent it is presented equally between male and female. There is no use of gender-related pronouns in the text.
I applaud the efforts of the Author and her students (!) in taking on the significant task of writing an open source laboratory manual for a single term undergraduate course in Human Anatomy. The subject is vast and highly detailed, and therefore requires selectivity in what detail is included and what is left out. I found that the general omission of the functional relevance of most anatomical structures was a disappointing feature for me, as I do think that is what has the potential to make Anatomy so fascinating to students in that they can relate the material to their own lives. The author clearly has a noble purpose in the significant effort required by this text, however, and for that she should be thanked.
A good introduction to anatomy in a one-semester laboratory class. Contains separate vocabulary lists for each lab at the end for easy reference and self-testing. read more
A good introduction to anatomy in a one-semester laboratory class. Contains separate vocabulary lists for each lab at the end for easy reference and self-testing.
There are no errors that I could find while reviewing the text.
The only issue I can foresee regarding relevance is that many institutions, for various reasons, are curtailing dissections or doing away with them altogether in favor of 3D medical apps such as Visible Body, and the author includes several dissections (brain, eye, heart, lung, and kidney) as part of her six-station lab arrangement. Including an alternate station activity may be a good idea for these labs.
Text is very readable for an undergraduate student, and lab introductions give a clear overview of the system covered and include anatomical terms covered in the lab.
Most labs are set up the same way, with a pre-lab assignment, introduction, lab activities with six "stations" where students learn new material, and post-lab assignment. Lab 3 (Nervous System) and Lab 6 (Respiratory System) don't contain pre-lab activities, which I find odd since these are very content-heavy labs that would benefit from students learning material before coming to class.
The manual is divided well into individual labs that serve as self-contained units (normally one day a week during fall/spring semesters).
The book is organized well overall. I thought it odd to put the muscular system with the integumentary system in Lab 10 and thought that stretching the nervous system into three different labs (Labs 3, 4, and 5) was a bit excessive - I would personally condense this system into two labs, and let the integumentary system and muscular system have individual labs earlier in the semester. (The traditional order for anatomy labs tends to be: introduction - histology - integumentary system - skeletal system - muscular system - nervous system - internal organ systems, but the order should reflect the order of the material presented in the lecture course.)
The text is free of interface issues, and I saw no evidence of navigation problems, distortion, or other distracting/confusing features.
The text has no grammatical errors that I can see.
The pictures of humans in which race/ethnicity are distinguishable are all pictures of individuals of European descent. No way to distinguish male skeletons from female skeletons was mentioned. No way to distinguish the skin of European-descended individuals from the skin of people of color was mentioned.
I really like the layout - I've found from experience that assigning both pre-labs and post-labs does wonders for vocabulary retention. I also like breaking down the lab activities into stations so students aren't too overwhelmed with too much information at once, and don't get bored or restless as they circulate around the room. It's a good way to make sure they stay in class for the entire three hours.
Some of the pictures are a little smaller than I would like them - perhaps you could enlarge them to a half page/entire page for better clarity/easier labeling by students. I'm also in favor of less structures being labeled, or even no structures being labeled in pre-lab assignments, so students have to put in the work and they get the vocabulary in their heads before class.
Overall, a nice manual, though!
Table of Contents
- Lab 1: Anatomical Language
- Lab 2: Bones and Bone Markings
- Lab 3: Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves
- Lab 4: Brain and Cranial Nerves
- Lab 5: Special Senses
- Lab 6: Respiratory System
- Lab 7: The Cardiovascular system
- Lab 8: Digestive System
- Lab 9: Urinary and Reproductive Systems
- Lab 10: The Muscular and Integumentary systems
About the Book
This is a lab manual for a college-level human anatomy course. Mastery of anatomy requires a fair amount of memorization and recall skills. The activities in this manual encourage students to engage with new vocabulary in many ways, including grouping key terms, matching terms to structures, recalling definitions, and written exercises. Most of the activities in this manual utilize anatomical models, and several dissections of animal tissues and histological examinations are also included. Each unit includes both pre- and post-lab questions and six lab exercises designed for a classroom where students move from station to station. The vocabulary terms used in each unit are listed at the end of the manual and serve as a checklist for practicals.
About the Contributors
Dr. Malgosia Wilk-Blaszczak has taught human anatomy and human physiology courses for 30 years to medical and nursing students, and currently to undergraduate students at University of Texas at Arlington. She holds an M.D. and a Ph.D. in Neuroscience from the Warsaw Medical University. Ever since she discovered her father’s anatomical fold-out “manikin” as a child, Dr. Wilk has has been enamored by all aspects of the human body. In addition to teaching, she loves old medical illustration and never misses the chance to see them in museums when she travels.